I. Using direct object pronouns
· A direct object is the object after the verb. It answers the question what? or who? It is almost always a thing, but it can be a person. It comes after the verb.
I buy a dress. I buy what? A dress. So dress is the direct object of the verb to buy
I see Mary. I see who? Mary. Mary is the direct object of the verb to see.
· A direct object pronoun takes the place of the direct object noun. It replaces it.
I buy a dress. (dress is the direct object), I buy it. (It is the direct object pronoun replacing the direct object, dress).
· In Spanish, the direct object pronoun must agree with the noun it Is replacing, in both masculine/feminine and singular/plural.
The direct object pronouns in Spanish are:
me = me nos = us
te = you os = you
lo/la = him/her/you (usted)/it los/las = them/you (ustedes)
When you replace the direct object with a direct object pronoun, you place the direct object pronoun before the conjugated verb.
E.g. Yo compro una blusa. Yo la compro. = I buy a blouse. I buy it.
Tú compras unos pantalones. Tú los compras. = You buy pants. You buy them.
Nosotros vemos a María. Nosotros la vemos. = We see María. We see her.
Ellos venden un carro. Ellos lo venden. = They sell a car. They sell it.
Ella necesita una camisa nueva. = Ella la necesita. = She needs a new shirt. She needs it.
Yo veo el perro. Yo lo veo. = I see the dog. I see it.
Ella me ve = She sees me.
Yo te veo. = I see you.
Ellos nos ven. = They see us.
The direct object pronoun goes before the conjugated verb, if there is only one verb. Or it can also be attached to the infinitive verb, the second verb. If there are two verbs, you can choose if it goes before the first conjugated verb or attached to the second verb that is not conjugated (the infinitive verb)
E.g Yo voy a comprar una camisa. Yo la voy a comprar OR Yo voy a comprarla. = I am going to buy a shirt. I am going to buy it.
Yo quiero vender mi coche. Yo lo quiero vender OR Yo voy a venderlo. = I want to sell my car. I want to sell it.
Yo voy a comprar un coche
Yo lo voy a comprar, OR Yo voy a comprarlo.
II. Present progressive tense
You use the present progressive to talk about an action you are doing right now. Since this is a temporary action, you use the verb “estar” . This is a new use of the verb “estar”.
Yo estoy Nosotros estamos
Tú estás Vosotros estáis
Él/Ella/Usted está Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes están
·In English, the present progressive is formed with the verb “to be” and a second verb ending in “ing”.
E.g. I am reading. She is writing, We are reading.
In Spanish, you form the present progressive by using the present tense of “estar” and the following endings to ar,er, and ir verbs
ar verbs = take off the “ar” and add “ando”
hablar = hablando
er and ir verbs = take off the “er” and “ir” and add “iendo”
comer = comiendo
escribir = escribiendo
Together the sentence would look like this:
I am talking. = Yo estoy hablando.
You are eating. = Tú estás comiendo.
She is writing. = Ella está bebiendo.
There are many irregular verbs when forming the present progressive. For the test next wqeek, you only need to know the following three irregular forms:
Leer = leyendo
Oír = oyendo
Creer = Creyendo
Using direct object pronouns with the present progressive. (This is not on your paper copy of the study guide. Please add it)
Since you have two verbs, you can choose to put the direct object pronoun before the first conjugated verb (estar), or attached to the second infinitive verb. Watch out: if you attach it to the infinitive verb, you MUST add an accent to the vowel right before the "n" in "ando" or "iendo"
Eg. Yo estoy leyendo el libro.
Yo lo estoy leyendo. OR Yo estoy leyéndolo.
Tú estás escribiendo una carta.
Tú la estás escribiendo. OR Tú estás escribiédola.
Yo estoy comiendo la pizza.
Yo la estoy comiendo. OR Yo estoy comiéndola.
Yo estoy comprando las camisas.
Yo las estoy comprando. OR Yo estoy comprándolas.