Using tener expressions:
In Spanish, we use tener to descibe various states of being: ie, being hungry, thirsty, hot, cold... They translate as "to be", even though they are using the verb "tener" which means to have. Each tener expression adds a noun to tener, so they never change the "o" ending to an "a".. since nouns do not change.
Therefore: Tengo frío = I am cold, whether you are a boy or a girl. Make sure you know all the tener expressions for the quiz tomorrow, and the test in a few weeks.
tener frío = to be cold
tener calor = to be hot
tener sed = to be thirsty
tener hambre = to be hungry
tener sueño = to be sleepy
tener miedo = to be scared/sfraid
tener razón = to be right/correct
tener cuidado = to be careful
tener prisa = to be in a hurry
tener ganas de... to feel like (as in: Tengo ganas de comer = I feel like eating)
Don't forget we also use tener with age: tener ____ años. = to be ___ years old.
There are various ways to describe the weather. You will use either: Hay, Hace, or Está.
Hace = It is (technically It makes, as in nature is making a weather condition)
Hay = There is (translated by the book as It is)
Está = It is (this one actually does mean It is.)
You need to remember how each weather expression begins, and you cannot move it around.
Hace sol. = It is sunny
Hace calor. = It is hot.
Hace frío. = It is cold
Hace tormenta. = It is stormy.
Hace viento. = It is windy.
Hace fresco. = It is cool.
Hace buen tiempo. = It is nice out/It is good weather.
Hace mal tiemoi. = It is bad out/It is bad weather.
Hay sol. = There is sun/It is sunny.
Hay viento. = There is wind/It is windy.
Está nublado. = It is cloudy.
Está lloviendo. = It is raining. (not taught in this unit)
Está nevando. = It is snowing (not taught in this unit)
llover = to rain (Don't confuse with la lluvia = the rain)
nevar = to snow (Don't confuse with la nieve = the snow)
When you conjugate these verbs, you only ever use the third person singular form, since people do not snow.
It rains = Llueve
It snows = Nieva
Both these verbs are stem changers.
Nevar e to ie
Llover o to ue
There is no word in Spanish for "ot" so to say "It rains" you simply say "Llueve"
En invierno, nieva mucho en Michigan. = In winter it snows a lot in Michigan.
En la primavera llueve mucho. = In spring it rains a lot.