The Sassy Six verbs:
If there is a direct object after passer, monter, descendre, rentrer, retourner, sortir (the sassy six), then you use avoir for the passé compose.
To find the direct object, ask “what” after the verb.
I drink milk (drink what? The milk)
I climbed the stairs (climbed what? the stairs)
Passer using avoir (there is a direct object):
Tu as passé un bon week-end? + Did you spend a good weekend?
Passer using être (there is no direct object)
Je suis passée lentement. = I passed by slowly. (no direct object)
Generally, the verbs descendre, monter, passer, rentrer, retourner, and sortir use être as their helping verb. They may, however, take avoir as their helping verb when they are used with a direct object. The meaning of these verbs differs according to the helping verb that is used:
descendre: with être, got off, went down; with avoir, took down
- Tu es descendu(e) du train. (You got off the train.)
- J'ai descendu l'escalier. (I went downstairs.)
- Il a descendu sa valise. (He took down his suitcase.)
- Elles sont montées. (They went upstairs.)
- Nous avons monté nos affaires. (We took [brought] up our things.)
- Je suis passé(e) par la pâtisserie. (I passed by the pastry shop.)
- Il a passé un mois au Canada. (He spent a month in Canada.)
- Vous êtes rentré(e)(s) tôt. (You came home early.)
- Elle a rentré le chat. (She brought in the cat.)
- Il est retourné à Paris. (He returned to Paris.)
- Ils ont retourné la chaise. (They turned over the table.)
- Elles sont sorties. (They went out.)
- Il a sorti son portefeuille. (He took out his wallet.)
Using qui versus que:
Qu’est-ce qui s’est passé hier? (passive sentence) = What happened yesterday?
Qu’est-ce que tu as fait hier? (active sentence) = What did you d yesterday?
Forming an adverb (An adverb is a word that describes how or when or how often you do something; ie modifying a verb).
Triste = sad (adjective)
Tristement = sadly (adverb) You add "ment" to the adjective (In English we add "ly" to the adjective)
Trop = too much
Beaucoup = a lot
Pas encore = not yet
Bien = well
Mal = badly
Déjà = already
When adding the adverbs above, they go in between the avoir and the past participle:
J’ai déjà mangé = I already ate. (already goes between the avoir and the past participle)
Je n’ai pas encore vu le film.
When making a passé composé negative, the ne and pas go around avoir.
I added a quizlet for the Dr & Mrs P Van Der Tramp verbs (under flash cards).